Rather, both NTFP and wood resources may be more or less intensively managed and even cultivated (Gilmour 1990; Shepherd 1992; Wiersum 1996). He was also the first ruler in the Timurid dynasty. This increase was much higher than the rate of inflation. In Nepali, Z. alatum is known as timur, while in Tibetan, it is known as yer ma and in Bhutan as thingay. Uzbek Temir, Turkish Demir). Thus, villagers are free to collect timur fruit in sarkari ban without licenses, and the collection is normally open access. On the one hand, forest officials claim authority over the land and frequently take action against unauthorized collection of forest products, while accepting (within limitations) that local villagers are breaching the law. Cultivation of timur on terrace risers on private lands. In the community forests, villagers only have access to forest products, but the forestland remains state owned. The group discussions concerned the social organization of groups of people involved in forest management and the collection and trade of timur. Concomitant with this process of management intensification, a gradual transformation of the natural ecosystem into a domesticated agroecosystem takes place. The gradual shift from a subsistence economy to commercialization, together with increasing opportunities for wage labor, stimulated a more efficient input of labor for timur collection on both private and community-controlled land. Bottom Heat to the Rescue - Duration: 30:26. In order to benefit from the initial increase in value on the hamro ban and community forestlands, farmers began to protect timur from exploitation by outsiders. Factors that influence the selection of collection areas include distance to and density of the resource, access rules, labor efficiency in collecting and managing timur, and market price. Nepal pepper - Szechwan pepper, Sichuan pepper, Chinese pepper, (Z. armatum) - Timmur - (टिम्मुर, तिम्बुर) Also known as ban timmur or Nepali pepper, this is a highly pungent, sharp tasting dried berry from the prickly ash shrub family. During this process, a gradual transition from collection of NTFPs from natural forests to the purposeful cultivation of trees providing NTFPs in plantations takes place. For this purpose, both group discussions and individual interviews were held. ms 27 Dan terjadilah bahawa raja megutuskan suatu perisytiharan ke seluruh negeri, di kalangan semua rakyatnya yang berada di seluruh negerinya, yang berada di semua daerah sekitarnya, yang bersempadanan bahkan dengan laut, di timur dan di barat, dan yang dipisahkan dari negeri Zarahemla oleh sejalur sempit padang belantara, yang … An extract of the fruits is reported to be effective in expelling roundworms. This plan is prepared by the forest users in collaboration with forest officials. Because of their deodorant, disinfectant and antiseptic properties, the fruits are used in dental troubles, and their lotion for scabies. Registered users receive a variety of benefits including the ability to customize email alerts, create favorite journals list, and save searches. According to Nepal Rastra Bank (1994), from 1980 to 1994, the price index for consumer goods increased from 74.6 to 287.4 (base year 1983–1984). The branches are armed with thorns of up to 2 cm. The oil obtained by steam distillation of the fresh plant shows antifungal activity. Landowners without formal titles on hamro ban land may enforce their claims by (trans)planting timur seedlings on the appropriated land. Nepali Mann Udhyog Timur Ko Chhop, Farnborough, Hampshire. Another variety, Z. armatum, is found throughout the Himalayas, from Kashmir to Bhutan, as well as in Taiwan, Nepal, China, Philippines, Malaysia, Japan, and Pakistan, and is known by a variety of regional names including timur (टिमुर) in Nepali, yer ma (གཡེར་མ) in Tibetan and thingye in Bhutan. Generally, collectors prefer to pay for a permit from the forest user committee for collection of timur in community forests rather than collect timur in the sarkari ban free of charge. Contact, Password Requirements: Minimum 8 characters, must include as least one uppercase, one lowercase letter, and one number or permitted symbol, Access Institutional Sign In via Shibboleth or OpenAthens, https://doi.org/10.1659/0276-4741(2000)020[0136:TZAPIN]2.0.CO;2, Forest management conditions in east Salyan, Characteristics of timur plant and products, The importance of timur collection in Salyan. It is an indigenous spice mostly found in the warmer valley of the Himalayan region of India, Nepal and Bhutan. After a long journey through the Himalayan mountain range, we were privileged to be able take part in the harvest of this Nepalese endemic berry which grows in the wild along the Mahabharat range. In each community, both qualitative and quantitative data were collected on the importance of timur production at both household and community levels and on the way in which timur production is organized. Nepali Kitchen Terms. The claim entails exclusive and private usufruct rights, but regulations for collecting timur are similar to those in the rest of the hamro ban forest. This right of shila charnu (literally, going for partial search) allows villagers to collect the remaining timur fruits on the lands of other villagers once the main harvest is over. Steam distillation of dried fruits yields an essential oil that has deodorant and antiseptic properties; it is used in soaps and dental preparations. No management practices for noncommercial products (eg, fodder, litter) have been formulated, although the local villagers may collect these products. Its use has changed as well. This content is available for download via your institution's subscription. Free Shipping in India on Prepayment. In Gregorian Calendar the days of the months are known but in nepali calendar its not the case i.e. Consulta los ejemplos de traducción de Timur en las frases, escucha la pronunciación y aprende gramática.